Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

I am sooooooooooooooo sick of hearing people say, "you shouldn't let your knees go over your toes!" and even MORE sick of hearing "squating below parallel is bad for your knees."

This is doctor squats site for crying out loud and i know there are several members here who know these warnings are bull.

Unfortunately i can't find any articles to prove it! every one stops at parallel, no one goes beyond parallel in studys, and then they say the deeper you go the more stress you put on the knee! OF COURSE IT DOES YOU STOPED AT 90 degrees! however mecanically speeking once you go past 90 you get more compressive forces acting on the knees from the musculature which is a good thing!

help me out here guys, i want enough evidence, objective, scientific, biomecanical evidance to convince anyone (including people who should already know this stuff like professors).

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Don't you know... All olympic lifters have to have their knees replaced at 35 from all the deep squats they do. haha

Saad Ahmed's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

#It is bad!! if your,

1.Not squatting correctly.

2.Squatting heavy all the time.

3.Knees are not accustom to greater torque forces.

4.Lifting technique places rotary stresses on the knee.

5.Shoes suck!

6.Ankle is not flexible.

Re: Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Josh wrote:
I am sooooooooooooooo sick of hearing people say, "you shouldn't let your knees go over your toes!" and even MORE sick of hearing "squating below parallel is bad for your knees."

This is doctor squats site for crying out loud and i know there are several members here who know these warnings are bull.

Unfortunately i can't find any articles to prove it! every one stops at parallel, no one goes beyond parallel in studys, and then they say the deeper you go the more stress you put on the knee! OF COURSE IT DOES YOU STOPED AT 90 degrees! however mecanically speeking once you go past 90 you get more compressive forces acting on the knees from the musculature which is a good thing!

help me out here guys, i want enough evidence, objective, scientific, biomecanical evidance to convince anyone (including people who should already know this stuff like professors).

http://www.cbass.com/Squats.htm

I do what naturally feels comfortable. I feel at ease going all the way down. But I don't preclude parallel squats from my routine. I also use box squats for overload. Everyone is different. Due to my flexibility, I can keep my arch and my back as straight as possible when doing full ass to grass squats. Some people just can't go that deep. I personally believe that ATG squats are better for bodybuilding. There is no need to go that low for powerlifting.

Olympic lifters will say that powerlifting squat is a cheat squat. Who cares!! Powerlifters just want to lift more and olympic lifters are all about form. Powerlifters like to go parallel and olympic lifters go all the way down. These are two different disciplines.

I believe this same terminology is at play here as far as ATG vs. Parallel. Two different styles...

They both are equally hard and I actually practice both.

And what about full ATG pause squats? I see a whole lot of articles online saying that pausing way down at the bottom is dangerous. Again, I think it depends on conditioning. If you are strong and flexible, then pause squats may be beneficial to your training. I tend to use pause squats as warm up stretch squats. Loading up to 275lbs on pause squats feel comfortable for me.

I like powerlifting because it allows me to overload and lift a lot of weight. I like olympic style lifting because it is explosive...

As far as Marcus's comment about olympic lifters, I somewhat agree with him. I think olympic lifters run into issues down the line. In my opinion, I think a lot of these olympic athletes keep training despite their injuries. Lot of them receive cortisone shots. Cortisone shots can relieve a lot of pain and give you the illusion that your injuries are healed. In reality, I think these cortisone shots do more harm than good.

But does doing olympic style full squats cause knee problems? It depends on how you train. Do what is natural for you.

Laughing out loud

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

It's amazing that a 3 or 4 year old can stay in a deep squat position for hours while playing or watching a toad or catapiller. Around the age of 5 or 6 we park their butt in chair in front of a television or video game and in a few years time they can't squat anymore. Go figure. Haven't people heard of the "use it or lose it" law.

At my age two things make me feel really good - sex and squatting deep.
The more often I do them the better I feel. Training frequency is important as you get older. Intensity and volume not so important.

TNT

Todd Wilson's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Go to the dieselcrew site. There's a relatively new article up that addresses this issue perfectly!

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Could you just post the link or tell us the article name?

There is actually more stress on the knee joint during a ¼ or ½ squat!
When you squat deeper, the hip joint absorbs the majority of the load and takes stress off the knee. But don't know about getting your knees over your feets! Try without weight and you can feel the pain!

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

i saw the article on diesle crew, but unfortunately while i've made that same argument a thousand times, the one reasearch study in the article is not referenced properly and there is only one there!

while i agree with the article i think it's a lousy article, and not much good for proof.

Quote:
#It is bad!! if your,

1.Not squatting correctly.

2.Squatting heavy all the time.

3.Knees are not accustom to greater torque forces.

4.Lifting technique places rotary stresses on the knee.

5.Shoes suck!

6.Ankle is not flexible.

this is true with ANY lift, halfsquat, full squat, whatever, hell standing in place is bad for your knees if these are the guidelines.

what i'm saying is in a healthy by that i mean no gross muscular imbalances, weaknesses or deformities, using proper technique, there is no reason that the actual motion of going into a full squat and coming up against resistance is dangerouse in any way to the knees.

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Do you see pyrros dimas never gets his toes over his feets but we need more facts guys!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVB_rQFSsEg&mode=related&search=

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

WHAT VIDEO WHERE YOU WATCHING???!!! method man in the video you link too Pyrros Dimas' knees are way over his feet and in some point over his toes!

secondly it's not just the knees over the toes mith were talking about it's also the full knee flexion which Pyrros also does!

finally, i'm not interested in objective evidence! we know lots of wrold class athletes who squat this way, but biomechanically, and physiologically why is it ok? conventional knowledge says when a 180 pound man squats like Pyrros with well over 400 pounds his knees should blow out, yet here he is an olympian!

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Where did you get that knowledge from? One friend of mine bends his knees over his toes way too much and he squats with 440 for 2*2reps yet he has never had a knee injury! But that doesn't mean that he is doing fine we have to get more knowledge on the issue! Dr.squat what has you to say about olympic lifting and knee injuries and how did he do it without injuries? Full squats are much safer than half squats or 1/4 if done correctly!

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Knees go past your toes. I have seen a study saying weightlifter(olympic) have less knee problems during the weightlifting years and after they are done. Just know how to squat read what Todd said.

Todd Wilson's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Josh wrote:
i saw the article on diesle crew, but unfortunately while i've made that same argument a thousand times, the one reasearch study in the article is not referenced properly and there is only one there!

while i agree with the article i think it's a lousy article, and not much good for proof.

It's the perfect proof if you logically deduce the inference made. In sports and everyday life the knees are going to "go past the toes." In those situations the forces acting upon the knee is going to be infinitely more "stressful" than it will ever get because of the squat with whatever weight. That is simply due to the dynamic nature of sport. Other movements that are specific to sports are trained, why not train that movement? There is not movement in sport in which the knees stay behind the toes. So why would one train that movement?

Even if it were "bad" for your knees......they'll get more milage out of being conditioned for the torture of going past the toes, than not being conditioned for it. I mean driving a car is bad for it. Driving systematically destroys a car, but it takes longer to do that if you get tune ups and change the oil regularly.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

What's the old saying? "Your body will rust out before it wears out."

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Knee injuries usually happens because of weak quads!

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

great! now how do you convince "experts?"

Todd Wilson's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Josh wrote:
great! now how do you convince "experts?"

Well, what's there retort? That because that movment happens in sports and everyday life that it shouldn't be trained?

But a movement like leg extensions should be trained even though that movement never happens unless you enter a seated asskicking contest?

Expert is a relative term, and there are some people who don't want facts and logic messing with their beliefs. You just can't fix stupid.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Todd Wilson wrote:
You just can't fix stupid.

LOL - You just gave me a new saying.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

most "profesionals" and "experts" i meet advocate closed kinetic chain multijoint movements as the gold standard, and are well aware of the dangers and futility of leg extensions. ALL OF THEM I KNOW ADVOCATE SQUATS, however they teach it to be done to parallel. look here is a conversation i had as an example in my kinesiology class:

profs. "tomarrow in lab we will be squating"

student "full squats?"

profs. "no you only have to go down half way so that your thighs are parallel with the ground."

me "why?"

profs. "going all the way down puts too much stress on the knees."

me "but the knees are designed to fully flex. how can it be too much stress on the knees if they are designed to fully flex"

profs. "but not everyones musculature is capable of cocontracting properly."

me. "then isn't that a muscular problem which has nothing to do with the depth of the squat?"

student "josh, she's got a doctorat in this stuff don't you think she knows what she's talking about?"

me "i never said she was wrong i simply asked why."

at this point i decided i should continue the conversation out sid eof class but i havent had a chance to do that yet. I've been told by others (not this profs. she likes me) that i come off acusing, it's true i have an opinion on it but i would love for some one to explain to my why my opinon is incorect b/c then i'd really learn somthing.

see this is what i'm talking about how do you explain it and prove it and convince some one like this profs to go "hey you've got a point, i never looked at it that way?"

also to top it off today in lab we tried 3 varieations of body weight squats for percieved exertion, toes in, toes out, toes straight ahead. nice huh? yeah i know toes in is WAY more damaging than full depth squats ever will me. so how come they were considered too dangerouse?

Todd Wilson's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

look here is a conversation i had as an example in my kinesiology class:

profs. "tomarrow in lab we will be squating"

student "full squats?"

profs. "no you only have to go down half way so that your thighs are parallel with the ground."

me "why?"

profs. "going all the way down puts too much stress on the knees."

### This is a standard answer, but most people giving this answer are simply repeating what they have heard. They have not checked the validity of this statement. Ask them what type of stress it places on the knee as opposed to stopping at parallel. Have them quantify it, and give data as to what constitutes "too much" stress. Present them with empirical evidence of weightlifters who have much lower incedence of knee injury than other athletes. If it indeed placed too much stress on the knee, why don't weightlifters typically have knee problems?

me "but the knees are designed to fully flex. how can it be too much stress on the knees if they are designed to fully flex"

profs. "but not everyones musculature is capable of cocontracting properly."

### ??????What does that mean? He doesn't know, and he's blowing smoke! What at the filament level is not working properly for the contraction? Can dysfunction of the musculature, i.e., muscles' interactions with one another, cause problems squatting? Absolutely, but your muscle contracts or it doesn't, there are no levels of contraction. When motor unit is firing, it fires completely. It's like sort of cranking your car.

me. "then isn't that a muscular problem which has nothing to do with the depth of the squat?"

student "josh, she's got a doctorat in this stuff don't you think she knows what she's talking about?"

### I.e., I don't know, but without questioning this information I will be a sheep and blindly follow the herd.

me "i never said she was wrong i simply asked why."

### People who do not know something (i.e., who are ignorant), will virtually always get defensive as if you have called them a poopy head, when you challenge a claiment they have made and they cannot provide reasoning and/or explanation as to the reason for their held belief. Even happens on this forum. Some people simply love their golden cows.

at this point i decided i should continue the conversation out sid eof class but i havent had a chance to do that yet. I've been told by others (not this profs. she likes me) that i come off acusing,

### Accusing or not, if they are correct they should be able to answer any question, or even an accusation. If they are incorrect and/or ignorant, thye won't and will take questioning personal, and will continue to attempt to "answer" you despite changing the subject to why you are questioning something that they blindly believe is fact. Not to get on a religious subject, but religion is similar. Many followers of virtually any religion have faith, and sometimes extraordinary faith. But often it is "Blind faith," based on subjectivity as opposed to faith based on reason or evidence. E.g., someone will become Christian because of an emotional (i.e., subjective) expierience at a worship service (not that that's wrong understand), as opposed to .....say investigating the historocity of the Bible with all of the archeological evidence that supports many of the stories and events within the Bible. The former is not bad, but it's validity is only as good as the expierience one puts their faith in. Some people have been duped into making bad decisions based on this "blind faith." E.g., the Branch Davidians, Jonestown, the Comet Chasers from San Diego a few years ago etc. So, while blind faith can be beneficial in discovering....whatever, it should always be questioned. If a belief can hold up to questioning.....given time it becomes a fact whether it's a religious belief or a belief in training methodlogy.

it's true i have an opinion on it but i would love for some one to explain to my why my opinon is incorect b/c then i'd really learn somthing.

### Yeah, but that would make sense.

see this is what i'm talking about how do you explain it and prove it and convince some one like this profs to go "hey you've got a point, i never looked at it that way?"

### Start diggin up some of the studies looking at the full squat and full knee flexion movements. There's quite a few available, it just takes some digging. UNderstand however, that there are some who's findings are opposite, but in all of those cases the study was flawed, I've looked at 100 or more of them. This whole thing was started by in the 60's with a study done by Keith Kline who was anti-weightlifting. He tested weightlifters and powerlifters with a little gadget he invented. Bill Starr among others who were his test subjects all have spoken out against his test procedures because he tested weightlifters and powerlifters with a slightly different set of rules and "concluded" that weightlifters had less stable knees. Compound that with the fact that the full squat takes much more effort, you have to use less weight, idiot coaches who can't teach it get kids hurt trying to perform them, and that few years later is when Arthur Jones and Nautilius made their big push, and this study and it's rediculous findings stuck. Doctors, trainers, therapists, etc. all will claim full squats are bad, but none who have truly investigated whether they are or not even suggests that they are dangerous.

also to top it off today in lab we tried 3 varieations of body weight squats for percieved exertion, toes in, toes out, toes straight ahead. nice huh? yeah i know toes in is WAY more damaging than full depth squats ever will me. so how come they were considered too dangerouse?

### Ignorance.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

todd what search engines and sites do you use to find these articles? the only ones i know of are pubmed and sportsdisscuss and i've just gotten exhousted searching on them even after getting help from a medical librarian who showed me how to do a proper search.

Todd Wilson's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Josh wrote:
todd what search engines and sites do you use to find these articles? the only ones i know of are pubmed and sportsdisscuss and i've just gotten exhousted searching on them even after getting help from a medical librarian who showed me how to do a proper search.

Those are two good ones, medline is good, I get a few research organizations and journals newsletters, but honestly.....when looking at research your going to get exhausted trying to find the stuff your looking for. That's the nature of research, you just have to read, and when you get tired, keep reading. If I get some time this weekend I might can post a few helpful ones.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Todd Wilson wrote:
Josh wrote:
i saw the article on diesle crew, but unfortunately while i've made that same argument a thousand times, the one reasearch study in the article is not referenced properly and there is only one there!

while i agree with the article i think it's a lousy article, and not much good for proof.

It's the perfect proof if you logically deduce the inference made. In sports and everyday life the knees are going to "go past the toes." In those situations the forces acting upon the knee is going to be infinitely more "stressful" than it will ever get because of the squat with whatever weight. That is simply due to the dynamic nature of sport. Other movements that are specific to sports are trained, why not train that movement? There is not movement in sport in which the knees stay behind the toes. So why would one train that movement?

Is the article in question Knees beyond toes?

My intentions for writing the article was to highlight the need to highlight the facts that in answer to my question Knee beyond toes? "You bet they are, In all of the pictures above you can clearly see that the knees are forwards of the toes. Why then do we as trainers still persist in instructing athletes to keep their knees behind the toes. It is time to dispel this myth as we are more than likely setting up our athletes for injury as failure to strengthen and develop the knee structure to withstand the repetitive positions that they will be placed under during sports is criminal. the aim of the article was never to do an extensive litrature review but instead was to initiate debate on the subject. I hope it has achieved this. Apologies for the slight reference mishap by not including the persons involved in the study by Fry, but it is listed correctly in the references at the end.

Ian

http://www.dieselcrew.com/articles/kneesbeyondtoes.pdf

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

let me clarify, i liked the article you wrote and i agree with it and it's argument and always have, however because like you say it is not an extensive reasearch article i cant really use it to prove anything to any one i'd like to.

on the plus side it was releaving to see some one else think the way i do and know i'm not the only one.

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Are you sure that dr squat said so because read this article.
http://drsquat.com/articles/kneed_to_know.html

During the decent phase of any type of squat, do not allow the knees to extend beyond your feet. The further your knees travel over your feet, the greater the shearing forces on the patellar tendon and ligament.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Todd Wilson wrote:
profs. "but not everyones musculature is capable of cocontracting properly."

### ??????What does that mean? He doesn't know, and he's blowing smoke! What at the filament level is not working properly for the contraction? Can dysfunction of the musculature, i.e., muscles' interactions with one another, cause problems squatting? Absolutely, but your muscle contracts or it doesn't, there are no levels of contraction. When motor unit is firing, it fires completely. It's like sort of cranking your car.

Call me crazy, but that sounds like a quick and dirty layman's way of saying that most people don't have the requisite flexibility and may have improper firing patterns in a deeply flexed position which could indeed cause instability about the knee joint.

Wait until you talk with the prof outside of class until you judge. Going to parallel with knees behind toes isn't a bad mass recommendation for the general populace. I bet the prof realizes the distinction.

-Dan

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

if they lack the flexibility to squat fully why the hell are they squating at all! talk about running before you can crawl! in rehab there is a pritty well set order to things it goes like this:

1) ROM
2) Flexibility
3) Strength
4)balance/proprioception
5)endurance

the logic is you need ROM before you can have flexibility you need flexibility before you can be strong in a ROM and you need balance and propriception befor you can do enough reps to gain endurance.

don't you think people would get more benifit from fixing the reasons they cant do full squats (ie muscular firing and flexibility) than from squating at all?

in my mind ROM and Flexibility are the most imporant components to fitness. look at old people! the first thing to go is flexiblity in the knees and back and everything else is down hill from there!

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Methodman wrote:
Are you sure that dr squat said so because read this article.
http://drsquat.com/articles/kneed_to_know.html

During the decent phase of any type of squat, do not allow the knees to extend beyond your feet. The further your knees travel over your feet, the greater the shearing forces on the patellar tendon and ligament.

Dr Squats quote comes from page 158, paragraph 2, Power: a scientific approach.

Lets be clear hear the knees are not travelling excessively far in front of the toes and indeed some may describe it as the knees being over the feet. The fact remains that "The knees will not be able to travel excessively far forwards of the knees if the feet remain fully anchored to the floor."

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Which one is older the article or the book? Maybe dr squat finded some research that prove this thing maybe he knew somethingabout this thing long time ago. There is alot of possibilities that we can make but let's hear it from the champ himself! Laughing out loud

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

In my experience, when the knees go over the toes as you descend into the squat, it isn't that your knees are in danger but that your center of gravity has moved forward and you are about to dump the lift. When I can keep my knees behind my toes I have better control of the lift and can incorporate my hips better into the lift.

Kim Baugher's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Eric Cressey wrote a pretty good article on T-Nation discussing this issue. I don't have the link handy, but it shouldn't be hard to find if you do a search.

Methodman's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

http://www.t-nation.com/ALSAuthor.do?p=Eric%20Cressey&pageNo=1

I don't know which article it is but just trying to help lazy people Laughing out loud

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

found it now we are getting some where! Laughing out loud :idea:

Saad Ahmed's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise.

APPLIED SCIENCES

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 33(1):127-141, January 2001.
ESCAMILLA, RAFAEL F.
Abstract:
ESCAMILLA, R. F. Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 1, 2001, pp. 127-141.

Purpose: Because a strong and stable knee is paramount to an athlete's or patient's success, an understanding of knee biomechanics while performing the squat is helpful to therapists, trainers, sports medicine physicians, researchers, coaches, and athletes who are interested in closed kinetic chain exercises, knee rehabilitation, and training for sport. The purpose of this review was to examine knee biomechanics during the dynamic squat exercise.

Methods: Tibiofemoral shear and compressive forces, patellofemoral compressive force, knee muscle activity, and knee stability were reviewed and discussed relative to athletic performance, injury potential, and rehabilitation.

Results: Low to moderate posterior shear forces, restrained primarily by the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), were generated throughout the squat for all knee flexion angles. Low anterior shear forces, restrained primarily by the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), were generated between 0 and 60[degrees] knee flexion. Patellofemoral compressive forces and tibiofemoral compressive and shear forces progressively increased as the knees flexed and decreased as the knees extended, reaching peak values near maximum knee flexion. Hence, training the squat in the functional range between 0 and 50[degrees] knee flexion may be appropriate for many knee rehabilitation patients, because knee forces were minimum in the functional range. Quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius activity generally increased as knee flexion increased, which supports athletes with healthy knees performing the parallel squat (thighs parallel to ground at maximum knee flexion) between 0 and 100[degrees] knee flexion. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the parallel squat was not injurious to the healthy knee.

Conclusions: The squat was shown to be an effective exercise to employ during cruciate ligament or patellofemoral rehabilitation. For athletes with healthy knees, performing the parallel squat is recommended over the deep squat, because injury potential to the menisci and cruciate and collateral ligaments may increase with the deep squat. The squat does not compromise knee stability, and can enhance stability if performed correctly. Finally, the squat can be effective in developing hip, knee, and ankle musculature, because moderate to high quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius activity were produced during the squat.

(C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Kreighbaum (1996) illustrate the safe position of a deep squat with the knees extending beyond the toes. Kreighbaum explains how a deep squat can be performed little chance of injury to the knee. The variables of concern:

speed of descent
size of calves and thighs
strength of the controlling muscles
The primary danger to the knee occurs when the tissues of the calf and thigh press together altering the center of rotation back to the contact area creating a dislocation effect. The danger of knee injury in this situation may be prevented if either of the following factor are present:

center of gravity of the body system is keep forward of the altered center of rotation
muscles of the thigh are strong enough to prevent the body from resting or bouncing on the calves.
Kreighbaum conclude the deep squat is of little danger to the knees unless these variables and factors are disregarded. Certainly only a limit type of athletes may have a sports specific need to perform a full squat. Olympic weightlifters commonly bounce out of a full front squat with near maximum resistances during both the Clean & Jerk and Snatch. Incidentally, the wide stance during an Olympic style squat further reduces knee torque forces.

During the lower portions of the deep squat the lower back may flex if hip flexibility is inadequate. The risk of injury is increased if the muscles of the lower back are not strong enough to support the flexed spine or the joint structures have not progressively adapted to such a stress. Flexibility exercises can be performed if hip flexibility is insufficient for deep, or full squats.

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

the second one looks promising but in the first article they only did the squat to parallel, not full knee flexion so i can't use that first one, but the second one i will get the whole article and look at it.

thnak you Smiling

Saad Ahmed's picture

Squating deep, squating over the toes, let's do this!

The first article pointed out the need for squats for a healthy knee and recommended to do parallel squats over deep squats. Also notice that this article is not directed towards serious powerlifters or olympic weight lifters where squatting deep is compulsory..

The second article highlights different variables which makes the deep squat safer for squat maniacs, you have to understand that the deep squat is difficult to learn and execute for beginners due to flexibility, lifting form and technique..If i was a coach i would definetly opt for deep squats over parallel squats anytime but first i would work on my atlethes flexibility..In the end i would like to conclude "the deep squat wont hurt you, you will hurt yourself by not knowing how to squat". The end.

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